The Difference between Type-I and Type-II Diabetes


In any form of diabetes, the body has difficulty transporting glucose (the body’s main fuel source) into the cells to be used to make energy. This is due to a dysfunction involving the production or detection of insulin, a hormone that is responsible for glucose transport. When glucose is kept from entering the cells of the body, it can build up to dangerous levels in the blood, leading to the serious complications associated with diabetes mellitus. 

Type-I diabetes mellitus is also known as insulin-dependent or juvenile onset diabetes. This type of diabetes is characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin due to the auto-immune destruction of the islet cells of the pancreas. These islet cells are responsible for secreting the body’s insulin supply. While it is not fully known why the body attacks these islet cells, it is believed that there is a genetic component predisposing certain individuals to this condition. Certain environmental substances, such as foods, chemicals, or viruses, may trigger these genes, resulting in the destruction of the islet cells of the pancreas and type-I diabetes. 

Type-II diabetes mellitus , also known as insulin-resistant diabetes , occurs when the body becomes resistant to high levels of insulin or does not make enough insulin. Cells can become resistant to insulin due to excess body fat, as increased fat tissue makes it much more difficult for the body to utilize insulin correctly. This disease occurs slowly over a long period of time and is often the result of a sedentary lifestyle, a poor diet (especially a diet high in processed meats), and excess body weight around the waist. Symptoms may not arise at first, but tend to develop years after the onset of disease.

If you have additional questions regarding the types of diabetes mellitus, let the healthcare team at MountainView Hospital be your resource. We offer  diabetes classes to help patients understand the complications associated with the disease and learn to manage their condition more effectively. Contact us at (702) 233-5300 to learn more.

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